Jan Miksovsky’s BlogArchive2007 AboutContact

Show mercy to keyboard users (yourself included) by setting the default keyboard focus

As more of my UI work moves from client software to web sites, I’m often struck by the lack of attention most web sites spend on details of UI interactions. As a case in point, compare the degree to which a software company considers its keyboard users. Most client software products do a fair to middling job of keyboard support, but at least provide some basic facilities like keyboard accelerators for input fields, and give at least a bit of thought to the order in which a user will tab through fields. Most web sites, in comparison, apparently fail to give the keyboard user the slightest bit of thought. 

Keyboard support is often considered to be something done just for people who, for various physical reasons, can’t use a mouse. That’s an important community to serve, but not the only reason to think about keyboard users. Most people use a keyboard at some point in a given computer session. The vast majority of people searching with Google, sending email, IMing, twittering, and so on, every day are doing so with a keyboard. Laptop users routinely find themselves in situations where using a mouse or pointing device is cumbersome. As with many services initially intended for users with disabilities (closed captioning, sidewalk curb cuts, wheelchair ramps), keyboard support benefits the broader public. 

For all people complain about Microsoft Windows, the platform and its applications do a great deal of work in service of keyboard users. As much as I love my MacBook, I’m often frustrated by operations that have no obvious keyboard shortcut. And I was amazed to discover OS/X disables a good portion of its keyboard support by default, requiring a trip to System Preferences to fix. Still, OS/X does a fantastic job of keyboard support in comparison to almost every web site today. 

The very simplest thing a UI designer to help keyboard users is deliberately pick a good control to receive the keyboard focus by default. This is usually a trivial task—just figure out which control the user is likely to want to interact with first, and put the focus there. Often this control will be a text box. In a decent visual UI designer, setting the default keyboard focus is usually something that can be done purely through design-time UI, without resorting to code. In HTML, the default focus can usually be easily set with a tiny amount of the most rudimentary JavaScript in an onload event handler. [Example: onload="document.myform.textbox1.focus()"]

Yet virtually no web pages bother to do this. This is pretty remarkable, even more so for web forms with text input fields. On such pages, almost every user is going to have to click the mouse on the first input field so they can start typing. Every user, every day, will have to spend a second or two to do this. In a minute or so, a web developer could permanently eliminate the need for that extra click. So why don’t more people bother? 

As far as I can tell, the most prominent class of web sites that consistently set the default keyboard focus is search engines: Google, Yahoo, Windows Live, etc. Most other sites don’t bother, even those like Facebook that have obvious fields, like Search boxes, that could receive the focus. And even the search engines that do set the keyboard focus don’t appear to reflect a consistent corporate design goal.

Google home page sets the default keyboard focus


Other Google properties generally don’t

Google’s home page sets the keyboard focus, but the main page for other Google properties like Google Reader, Google News, and YouTube don’t. Windows Live does, but Microsoft’s corporate home page doesn’t. This last example is particularly telling. Microsoft spends untold hundreds of hours every year ensuring that its Windows products comply with regional accessibility regulations such as the wide-reaching Americans with Disabilities Act. American federal agencies generally insist that suppliers like Microsoft create products that comply with these laws if they want to do business with the agency. I have no specific knowledge, but it’s reasonable to assume that the Microsoft home page doesn’t fall under these regulations—maybe for the simple reason that no one’s paying to use the page. 

I think the primary reason web companies ignore keyboard users boils down to expectations. Web sites don’t bother to set the keyboard focus because other web sites don’t, and because by now users don’t expect them to. This double standard is so pervasive that, as much as I care about well-designed keyboard support, the web version of the product I work on generally doesn’t set the keyboard focus either. It just never occurred to me as something to worry about, even as I devoted attention to keyboard users of the downloadable Windows client version of the same product. 

Starting to write this post provided me the impetus to finally address this UI problem in some portions of on Cozi’s marketing site. Some pages like the Cozi sign-up page had forms that were completely straightforward to fix. The Cozi home page proved tougher to fix. I wanted to set the focus to the search box. Unfortunately, that control happens to use hint text, the light gray text inside a field that serves as a field label. Like most HTML implementations of hint text, the particular implementation we happen to use clears the hint text when the control receives the focus. This means setting the default keyboard focus has the unwanted side effect of removing the hint text, thereby obscuring the purpose of the very field the user might want to type in. As it turns out, we’ve been developing a better hint text implementation anyway that won’t disappear until the user starts typing, and I’m looking forward to eventually using that control for our search box. 

In the meantime, I’ve at least resensitized myself to the interests of keyboard users, myself included. If your web product has a commonly used form or search box, why not take a minute to put the default keyboard focus in the right place? Setting the default keyboard focus is only a simple tiny step towards designing a good experience for keyboard users, but at least it’s a start.